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Thursday, 29 December 2016
THE MAN WHO SHOT THE GREAT WAR
THE REMARKABLE STORY OF GEORGE HACKNEY – THE BELFAST SOLDIER WHO TOOK HIS CAMERA TO WAR
By Mark Scott
Foreword by Col. Tim Collins
Lance Corporal George Hackney of the 36th Ulster Division was an ordinary Belfast soldier who, contrary to military law at the time, took his camera away to war in 1915. The images he took have become an exceptional and rare collection that documents The Great War first hand. George’s images of soldiers training, travelling to France, and relaxing with friends and comrades contrast with his later images from the first day of the Battle of the Somme, life in the trenches and poignant reminders, that for many soldiers, they would never return home. This story also reveals how one man’s wartime experiences fuelled an unlikely moral quest that was to change his life forever.
For those of us fortunate enough never to have been in a major conflict, we can try to imagine or pretend to imagine what life was like in the First World War for soldiers on battlefields, in trenches, on the march, under bombardment, witnessing death and destruction all around them and dealing with their own fears and demons. But the truth is, we haven’t a clue.
We rely on historians to relate the broad sequence of events but first-hand accounts by individuals who actually lived with the stench and terror of war bring home much more of the reality of what life – and death – was like. There are many such individual narratives by former soldiers in books and archives and they are all brave attempts to tell us, to warn us even, about the futility of war, the horrendous conditions and the terrible loss of life. There are many collections of photographs of war zones, of soldiers in a range of poses from high spirits to deep despair, from sharing a joke to mourning dead comrades, soldiers in informal moments to to those standing formally straight and proud. Most war photographs, as far as I know, are taken by people employed as Press or freelance war photographers. So, there are powerful words and powerful pictures, as there should continue to be.
The excellent book, The Man Who Shot The Great War, is a little different to the norm in that the photographs from locations and episodes of The Great War were taken not by a professional photographer but by a soldier permitted to carry a camera, something very unusual indeed. George Hackney was a working soldier in amongst the bombs, bullets, muck and madness but he was allowed and found moments to capture pictures of his fellow soldiers and their working and living conditions. Some of the photographs show relaxed people doing their best to find comfort and others show gaunt, worried and frightened soldiers unsure about what just happened around them or what would happen to them in the next moment or round the next corner. It is a remarkable collection of images that would be easy to skim but for the thoroughly researched details that feed the story. We are not just looking at random photographs but, with Mark Scott’s deft hand, we are introduced to many of the soldiers featured in the shots. We get to know their names, their addresses back in Northern Ireland, some family history and whether they lived or died. We are drawn into personal stories that, I have to admit, sometimes brought a tear to my eye. I am not suggesting that George Hackney’s work cannot stand alone as a pictorial record but I am saying that the identification of individuals adds more power to what is already a powerful, striking set of images. The photographs and the words, enhanced by front line diary entries, underline so much about the desperation that wars bring.
George Hackney survived the war but carried the mental scars and bad memories for the rest of his life. After military service, he had little interest in photography as any kind of career. He returned to live and work quietly in Belfast, finding a religion that suited his quest for personal peace.
He died in 1977 at 89. His headstone is carved with the single word “Hackney”. “The simple headstone in a strangely comforting way is a more than appropriate monument to mark the final resting place of the man we know him to have been. The man at one with nature. The warrior. The quiet unassuming gentleman. The man of faith seeking a oneness of Mankind and World Peace. Ulster’s finest war photographer whose work remained locked away, unseen, along with his bitter memories.”
Mark Scott has done a brilliant job of telling this remarkable story and I urge a wide readership for The Man Who Shot The Great War.
p.s. If you get a chance to see the Doubleband Films documentary of this story (shown recently on BBC television) directed by Brian Henry Martin, I recommend it highly.
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Saturday, 17 December 2016
It's A Wonderful Life was released in the U.S. on 20 December 1946.
Most of the films I have watched over six decades, I have seen once and that’s enough. They passed the time as they were meant to do, did their job to entertain (or not), were memorable for a variety of reasons (or not) and can be safely discarded in the dustbin of history with all the other ho-hummery of life. But, there are some films that I have watched countless times and I know great sections of their scripts off by heart. I am talking about Casablanca, The Third Man, The Searchers, North By North-West, The Great Escape, The Magnificent Seven, The French Connection and several others that I treat like precious belongings. They are my films, mine I tell you, comfort blankets in a way, old friends that I never tire of seeing.
As Christmas draws us in, another film joins the list. It’s A Wonderful Life pops up regularly on television and has become a firm favourite with many people. It is 70 years since the film’s release in December 1946 and its appeal never diminishes. It is a film of many layers - darkness, light, fantasy, drama, comedy, sadness, joy, a fable, a story with a message about humanity, a brilliantly stitched together piece of timeless entertainment. It was not intended as a Christmas-only movie but that is where it seems to fit in the season where we are encouraged to think positively about life and about peace and goodwill.
It’s A Wonderful Life is based on a story called The Greatest Gift by Philip Van Doren Stern. In 1943, RKO Pictures bought the rights as a possible vehicle for Cary Grant but eventually sold it on to Frank Capra’s company, Liberty Films. Capra had directed It Happened One Night (1934) starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, Mr Deeds Goes To Town (1936) with Gary Cooper and Jean Arthur, Lost Horizon (1937) with Ronald Colman and Jane Wyatt and Mr Smith Goes To Washington (1939) starring James Stewart and Claude Rains, before getting involved with wartime documentaries. His first feature film after the war was It’s A Wonderful Life with James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, Thomas Mitchell and Ward Bond.
Stewart plays George Bailey, a businessman in the town of Bedford Falls. The film opens with his family, friends and neighbours praying for him and the prayers are heard loud and clear by the angels above. The senior angel decides that a trainee, Clarence – “he’s got the IQ of a rabbit but he’s got the faith of a child” – should be given a chance to earn his wings by visiting Earth and helping “discouraged” George to think seriously “about throwing away God’s greatest gift”, his life. Before Clarence sets off, he is briefed about George’s life.
George has been ticking along nicely with his family and his work, although he has adventurous ambitions and itchy feet to leave his “crumby little town”. He plans to go to college and then travel the world. But his plans are thrown into disarray by the death of his father and the chicanery of banker Potter, “the richest and meanest man in the county”, who tries to put the Baileys out of business. George marries his childhood friend Mary and resigns himself to staying and raising a family. He oozes compassion for the community while the devious Potter oozes greed. The banker exploits an opportunity – a mislaid $8,000 - provided by George’s unreliable uncle to increase the pressure to cheat the Baileys into bankruptcy and it all becomes too much for George to handle. The authorities close in on the loan company. He goes off the rails and ends up contemplating suicide on a bridge. As he is about to throw himself in the river, he is distracted by a big splash made by AS2 (Angel Second Class) Clarence who cries out for George to save him from drowning.
As they dry out, Clarence (played quietly and sweetly by Henry Travers) explains that he is trying to earn his wings by succeeding as George’s guardian angel. Sceptical George dismisses the notion but blurts out: “I wish I’d never been born.” His flippant wish is granted and suddenly George never existed and Bedford Falls is now Pottersville. Everyone that George knows doesn’t know who he is – not his mother, his wife, his friends. The town is the same layout but with different building facades. He can see what life is like without him. It is a miserable scenario.
On the verge of insanity, George begs God and Clarence to restore his life. His prayers are answered and in the concluding scenes, George is seen running through Bedford Falls in the snow shouting “Merry Christmas” at everyone and everything. He goes home, hugs his children and his wife and even seems happy that he will still be arrested for the discrepancy in the business’s accounts. But the townsfolk, reacting to a “George is in trouble” campaign contribute more than enough cash to replace the missing money. To the strains of Auld Lang Syne and big happy smiles all round, the moral of the story is underlined – it’s a wonderful life.
Clarence’s last message to George is this: “Remember no man is a failure who has friends. Thanks for the wings! Love Clarence”.
So, why is this film such a classic watched again and again by people like me. It is too long at 130 minutes, the editing and continuity is clunky, the story is a mixed bag of love story, comedy, tragedy, drama and pantomime. Some scenes are scarily dark and it is tied up by a possibly too neat, jolly ending to assure us that everything is fine. In some ways, it shouldn’t work as well as it does. Some people think it is overly sentimental, over-egged and overacted with too many melodramatic moments jostling with the lighter touches. Of course, it is all of the above and much more, a film of layers and lessons, albeit simple messages; appreciate what you have, money isn’t everything, however bad things get, there’s still hope, each one of us can make a difference and so on.
We have to remember that this film was made in the immediate aftermath of a terrible war and if ever the world needed some kind of reassurance, some reminders of the important things like family and friends and, darn it, some entertainment to lift the heart, soul and spirit, that was the time. In the uncertain and worrying world right now, It’s A Wonderful Life can still deliver its magical fantasy, allowing us to enjoy this timeless fable and maybe encourage us to appraise ourselves as individuals and contributors to the wider world. This might be overstating the film but it does pack its own unique punch emotionally.
And what of the cast? James Stewart as George Bailey gives the role everything he has to offer, a tour-de-force of acting and quality that is astounding to watch. Donna Reed as childhood sweetheart Mary is a stable foil for George’s personality changes, providing warmth, tenderness and a little steel here and there. The two leads are a great partnership. The stereotypical villain of the piece, banker Potter, played wonderfully by Lionel Barrymore, is just missing a moustache to twirl. His very presence encourages hisses and boos when he is on screen. Uncle Billy Bailey, played splendidly by Thomas Mitchell, is an archetypal drunken buffoon and we just know he’s going to play a big part in the lost money plotline that swerves the story into its angel phase. The other cast members, including a small part with Ward Bond as a cop, are nicely judged.
It’s A Wonderful Life is, as I said at the beginning, one of a cluster of old friends that I like to see occasionally. I like to see it in its black and white original version. A colourised version is available and it may appeal to new viewers who recoil from monochrome in this super-fussy age, but it’s not for me. I am an old school film fan and It’s A Wonderful Life is an old school movie that, seventy years on, can still resonate, still seep into our hearts, still rouse the good traits of humanity and still entertain. Film critic Barry Norman describes it as “simply heart-warming, the grand-daddy of all feel-good movies.” It is always welcome. Like an old friend.
Friday, 16 December 2016
Christmas means different things to different people. For a variety of reasons, some people love it, some hate it and some ignore it. But, whatever the opinions, there is a huge demand for food and feasting. Supermarkets gear themselves up for a stampede of customers and those customers expect supermarkets to supply everything required and trust them, amongst other things, on food quality. But, as customers, are we too trusting? As truckloads of food are delivered to shops in the peak season, do we have anything to worry about? Let me share a true experience with you.
I had a retail management career for over 35-years, so I think I have the knowledge and credentials to highlight something that might be of interest to the general public. The longest week of my retail life was at Christmas a few years ago. I was managing a food and non-food superstore in the English Midlands. The strategy for this most important season had been set a few months before at a Christmas conference where store managers were reminded of the fact that 40% of the year’s sales depended on the October to December period, peaking in the frenzy of the ten days up to Christmas. We were informed that product availability, especially fresh and frozen food, would be second to none and more than ample to meet demand. This was big business for turkeys, vegetables, hams, meat, pork pies, dips, salads, cheeses and all the rest of it, so to miss out on sales by not getting the supply and distribution chains right would be a disaster for the balance sheet. But what happened in the course of this particular big week leading up to Christmas was challenging, frightening and, in some ways, dangerous.
The buyers had bought enormous quantities of fresh and frozen food. The directors had signed off the plan. The store managers had to manage at best and cope at worst with increased deliveries of pallets and pallets and pallets of food, before more and more pallets arrived. The rules of fresh and frozen food handling dictated that we had to receive the delivery and have it checked and refrigerated within an hour at most, but within twenty minutes was the ideal target. Even Tom Cruise would have found that mission impossible on some heavy days. We found it impossible in stores and I can tell you that huge quantities of fresh and frozen food did not see refrigeration storage for days. Luckily, the weather was on our side. Outside in the warehouse yard, it was bitterly cold, icicles hanging from the roof and snow on the ground. and so, I suppose, by default, we complied with chilled and frozen conditions. But the fact of the matter was that the amount of food sent to us, predetermined by buyers and merchandisers, far outweighed our storage capacity on the premises. What if the weather that week had been mild?
On our daily Christmas conference call, store managers voiced concern about the avalanche of food arriving several times each day. This was a widespread problem. On one of the calls, the Chief Executive of the company brushed our concerns aside and told us that our top priority this Christmas was to maintain availability of all fresh and frozen food products to closing time on Christmas Eve. He seemed unconcerned about the mountains of food being stored in supermarket yards for several days. The general public had no idea. All across the UK, delivery areas of supermarkets were choked full of product that belonged in properly refrigerated storage. We had to manage the situation as best we could and we did, with flying colours, if flying by the seat of our pants was a legitimate way of working. We got away with it because of the freezing weather but it taught me a few lessons about sales pressure and the ability of some senior people in retailing to turn a blind eye to practical problems, preferring to concentrate on the balance sheet above and beyond customer safety and care sometimes.
This happened about ten years ago but I was reminded of retail standards when I was writing about the steep decline of supermarket staff appearance and the emergence of tattoos, face jewellery, lank hair, scruffy stubble and other stuff that would never have been tolerated in the past. Some aspects of supermarkets are inefficient and, at times, downright sloppy, service can be erratic and good manners are a lottery. The next time I’m greeted with “Awright, mate” or an irritating “Do you want a bag, sweetheart?”, I will not be responsible for my actions. There are glorious exceptions, of course. There are some naturally nice, well-mannered, well-groomed retail employees, but not enough of them. However, I digress and leave that aspect for another day. But there is a connection with inconsistent management, cutting corners and evidence that the customer is not always the centre of attention.
On fresh and frozen food handling and storage, I decided to update my knowledge, having seen recently some customers or their children sticking their fingers into salad bar food or rummaging around in unwrapped bread displays. I have witnessed this kind of thing a lot in my retail management days and I have lost count of how many people I have chastised. So, I wrote to a selection of food businesses to get their response to this message via their website feedback sections:
“I wonder if you could ease my mind about something. I would love to buy more products from salad bars, be more adventurous with unwrapped bread and other exposed food. But I worry about some customers being unhygienic when shopping in these areas, maybe some customers searching through the bread or tasting the salad stuff and being a bit, well, grubby in the process. Is this a concern for you too, or am I just worrying unnecessarily?
Also, as Christmas approaches, I often think about the enormous amounts of fresh and frozen food delivered to stores and wonder if there is enough storage space to keep this food at the right temperatures. We customers don’t always know what goes on behind the scenes. Maybe it’s just me needing a bit of reassurance. Thank you.”
I was asking the question as a customer with genuine concerns, albeit based on my inside knowledge over the years. But I thought the replies might be of interest to others.
Marks and Spencer replied thus: Many thanks for getting in touch about our policies surrounding hygiene in stores, I do appreciate your concerns and that everyone has different standards of hygiene. I am a clean freak myself so similar thoughts cross my mind. Customers are able to select loose salad items in store, yes this means they are able to touch the produce and find the items they wish to purchase. I would say it is rare that customers need to rummage to find something meaning they often keep the first item they select. Many customers use the loose carrier bags to select their items but not all do. However, the items which are loose are those which can be washed before consumption, as you would do from any store, to ensure they are perfectly safe to eat. We also sell the majority of the loose items as a pre packaged variety too, these are obviously in larger portions so may not be suitable for your requirements but this would eliminate your concerns with other customers handling your items. In terms of our fresh bakery produce, there are loose bags and utensils for customers to select their goodies with. The utensils are regularly washed throughout the day and items and staff monitor the bakery items and replacement or removal of items will occur if we have question to believe they are not safe for consumption. In terms of the Christmas food, this is our busiest time of the year with food items moving in and out of our stores faster than you could ever believe. We have such strict refrigeration and hygiene policies to ensure the items reach our customers in the best condition for them to enjoy for their special celebration. The procedures in place are planned down to a T and run as efficiently as a military operation. We spend the majority of the year planning for the festive season with maximum care and attention paid to making the occasion special. I have every faith that you have nothing to be concerned about on this front. I hope I have reassured you with our processes and policies and that you will be able to enjoy our produce with ease from now on.
Tesco responded: Thank you for your email regarding the storage and display of some of the products we have in our stores. We maintain very high standards of hygiene and cleanliness in our stores whilst adhering to all government legislation and EU regulations relating to displays such as the salad bars. I do understand your concerns regarding these areas (I think most supermarkets now have similar self-service units), however please let me assure you our stores do receive an internal independent audit twice a year, and those with counters four times per year to ensure all standards are met. If ever you have any concerns regarding the products on display or the behaviour of another customer towards these displays, please do not hesitate to inform a staff member. With regards to the storage of Christmas goods, our stores do start planning for the additional stock several months in advance to ensure everything is stored correctly. Many of the products our customers buy must be kept at certain temperatures to maintain their quality. It's for this reason we have Refrigeration Alarm monitoring staff who will then notify a store if a fridge or freezer is running at a high temperature. I hope this information is of help. If you have any other queries, please do not hesitate to get in touch.
Waitrose: Thanks for your comments about the way goods are displayed and handled on the salad bar counter and open bread fixtures. We aim to sell food to our customers in the best possible condition. This means we apply high standards of personal, food and surface hygiene. We also keep products, such as open products in correct storage conditions and handle them in a way that prevents contamination. Our premises and procedures, and those of our suppliers, conform to strict hygiene standards and are subject to routine inspection by Environmental Health Authorities. However, if you're still not happy to purchase products from these areas, we do stock a range of similar goods that are pre-packed. Christmas is indeed fast approaching and as you quite rightly point out, is a busy period for use. I can assure you that all of our branches do have adequate space for storage, with extra units being erected where needed. These include temperature controlled areas for all of the extra chilled and frozen stock that we’ll be selling. Thanks again for your comments and for giving me the opportunity to clarify our position. I hope that you’ll now have the confidence to be more adventurous and try some of the delicious products that we sell at our open counters.
Morrisons: Thanks for taking the time to contact us. I can assure you that all of the food on available on our salad bar is perfectly safe we have separate tongs and spoons for each product and labels above each bowl. The staff members carry out very regular visual checks on the items and anything looks as though it needs replacing or is something has been mixed with another item they will remove it immediately and put out fresh products. With regards to storage space in store we will only ever send a store what they need so that they have the sufficient storage space we would never send anything that they did not have the room for. If you would like more information regarding this, please feel free to speak with the Store Manager on your next visit and he will provide you with more information. I hope this helps and if there is anything else I can do please let me know.
Sainsbury’s did not respond.
I applaud the lengthy replies and the thought that went into writing them, but there is a feeling that the respondents are towing the party line, talking about what should happen. What happens in practice in stores and their warehouses might be another matter. Maybe things have improved in recent years and storage space is adequate at peak trading times.
Retail teams on the front line work extremely hard, especially around Christmas. They are up against all sorts of challenges and pressures, and I am certainly not criticizing them. I hope that for their sanity and the safety of customers that my nightmare before Christmas is not repeated.
If anyone is worried about this kind of thing, simply ask your local store manager if you can see behind the scenes - they are hardly likely to decline a customer request - and make up your own mind. Hopefully, everything will either be fine and dandy or as wobbly and uncontrollable as a wonky trolley.
Let the customer beware of what goes on behind the scenes.